Second Annual Sacred Libation Order of Service


2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER 3

2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony Flyer

SECOND ANNUAL SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY

IN REMEMBRANCE: 150 BLACK WOMEN LYNCHED IN THE U.S. 1870-1957

3:00PM, Sunday, March 29, 2015

Congo Square, Philadelphia, PA

ORDER OF SERVICE

Procession of Priests, Philadelphia Asante Nation Queen Mothers and other presenters

Egun Songs and Drums

Baba Joe Bryant, Baba Sekou Olayinka

Welcome

Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett, Oni Sango

The Women

Brother Nnamdi Azikiwe, owner of Henrietta Vinton Davis website

Lynching in Amerikkka

Iya Katrina Hazzard Donald, director of Rutgers/Camden Africana Program

Libation for the 150 Lynched Women Egun

Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett, Oni Sango

Nana Afua Afriyie Kyeiwaa, Philadelphiahemaa

Nana Akua Oforiwaa Amanfo, Philadelphia Asonahemaa

Song

Hush Somebody’s Calling My Name

Calling of the Names of the Lynched Egun

The Sisters

Prayer

Mama Gail Clouden

Sufi Healing Chant

Sister Sultana

Closing Song

Oh Freedom!

Drumming for the 150 Lynched Women Egun

Baba Joe Bryant & the community of drummers

WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH: THE LYNCHING OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN


WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH: THE LYNCHING OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

By Marilyn Kai Jewett

Many of us who are students of history know about the thousands of Black men who were lynched in this nation. However, most don’t know about the many African American women who were also lynched. Last year, I came across a website dedicated to Henrietta Vinton Davis, a prominent and fearless leader in Marcus Garveys’ Universal

Laura Nelson is the only woman of whom a photograph is known to exist who was lynched in America.

Laura Nelson is the only woman of whom a photograph is known to exist who was lynched in America.

Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). The website included a listing of documented cases of African American women who had been lynched between 1870 and 1957. The website provides documented information on these women – their names, dates, places, the reason they were lynched and with whom they were lynched. Reading this made me angry and brought tears to my eyes. Reading the details of these lynchings is hard and painful, but necessary for those who want to know the truth. This is part of our history — Amerikkkan history – world history — that must be taught to our children and grandchildren. They will not learn this in school. It’s up to us to teach them the true history of the U.S. that proclaims that it’s “one nation under God, with liberty and justice for all.” Right.

These “women,” many of whom were children, were not just lynched — they were raped and tortured before being hung, shot or burned by mobs of white men. Now days, African Americans ostracize Black people who are Republican. However, the first three women on the list – Mrs. John Simes lynched in 1870 in Henry County, Kentucky and Mrs. Hawkins and her daughter, lynched in 1872 in Fayette County, Kentucky, were all murdered for being Republicans!

Many of these women were lynched for standing up for themselves and their families. If their husband or son was accused of a crime and couldn’t be found, the females in the family were lynched. Entire families, including the children were lynched together. Some were lynched merely because they were Black. Others were lynched because they dared to have a dispute with a white person.

Hannah Kearse was lynched in 1895 in Colleton, South Carolina with her mother and son for supposedly stealing a bible. Jennie McCall was lynched in 1903 in Hamilton, Florida by mistake! Mercy Hall was lynched in 1922 in Oklahoma City for strike activity. Eliza Bryant was lynched May 25, 1926 in Duplin, North Carolina for having the nerve to be successful. The last sister on the list, Mrs. Frank Clay, was lynched November 18, 1957 in Henderson, North Carolina for having a dispute with a white person. I was 3 years-old in 1957.

I’m sure most people don’t know about these women, but we must never forget women like pregnant Mary Turner who was lynched May 17, 1918 in Brooks County, Georgia to teach her a lesson. After her husband was lynched, Mary threatened to have those who lynched him arrested. She fled, but the mob pursued her and found her the next morning. She was eight months pregnant when the mob of several hundred took her to a stream, tied her ankles together and hung her from a tree upside down. She was doused with gasoline and set on fire. One of the mob took a knife and split open her womb so that her unborn baby fell to the ground. The baby’s head was then crushed under the heels of her murderers. But, that wasn’t enough for the demonic mob. They finished Mary off by riddling her body with bullets – to teach her a lesson.

2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER

Flyer for the 2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony

Seventeen year-old Marie Scott was lynched on March 31, 1914 in Wagoner County, Oklahoma by a white mob of at least a dozen males. Two drunken white men had broken into her house as she was dressing and raped her. Her brother heard her screams for help, kicked down the door, killed one assailant and fled. Unable to find her brother, the mob lynched Marie. After she was arrested, the mob took Marie from jail, threw a rope over her head as she screamed and hung her from a telephone pole.

Sisters Alma, 16 and Maggie Howze (House) 20, were both pregnant by Dr. E. L. Johnston, a married, white dentist who used them both as his sex slaves, when beaten and hung in 1918 from a bridge near Shutaba, Mississippi for allegedly killing him. Alma was close to giving birth when lynched. Eyewitnesses at her burial said that that the movements of her unborn baby could be detected.

Laura Nelson was accused of murdering a sheriff who had supposedly discovered stolen goods in her house. She was lynched with her 15 year-old son in 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma. Laura and her son were taken from jail, dragged six miles to the Canadian River, where she was raped by the mob before she and her son were hung from a bridge.

Ann Barksdale (Ann Bostwick) was lynched in Pinehurst, Georgia on June 24, 1912 for supposedly killing her white, female employer. There was no trial and no statement was taken from Ann who authorities claimed had mental issues and should have been placed in a hospital. The mob was in a festive mood when they placed her in a car with a rope around her neck and the other end tied to a tree limb. Her murderers drove at a high speed until she was strangled to death. To make sure she was dead, the mob shot her eyes out and riddled her body with so many bullets that she was “cut in two.”

These lynchings are a part of the “African Holocaust – the Maafa” that some folks, including some Negroes, want us to forget. The Maafa included the Middle Passage, 300+ years of chattel slavery, Reconstruction, Jim Crow/De Facto segregation and continues to this day. Some of those people – African American and white — who witnessed these lynchings as children are still around.

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them.

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them.  — Ida B. Wells

These African American women, men and children were lynched with the cooperation of local law enforcement – many of whom were leaders of the local Ku Klux Klan. However, there’s a different kind of lynch mob in 21st Century Amerikkka. People of African descent are still being lynched by those who uphold this tainted, blood-stained system – the police, the courts, politicians who make the laws and yes, the media. So when you speak of the modern day lynchings of Brandon Tate-Brown, Phil Africa, Michael Brown, Troy Davis, Trayvon Martin, Amadou Diallo, Sean Bell, Oscar Grant and the countless men of African descent whose lives were unlawfully taken by police and the judicial system, remember our sisters who were brutally lynched by the mob.

Much thanks and praises to the scholars who researched and uncovered this important history. Thanks and continued blessings also to Brother Nnamdi Azikiwe who posted the information on his website. For more information on these lynchings, go to https://henriettavintondavis.wordpress.com/2009/07/22/recorded/.

Once again, I am asking all spiritually-conscious women and men of African descent to join me 3:00PM, Sunday, March 29 at Congo (Washington) Square, 7th & Walnut Streets in Philadelphia for the Second Annual Sacred Libation Ceremony in remembrance of our departed sisters. Although we are doing this in Philly, the ancestors want to be remembered with sacred libation ceremonies throughout the nation. We must never forget these women – our sisters, our ancestors — who were brutally tortured and murdered. NEVER AGAIN!

-30-

REMEMBERING OUR SISTERS: BLACK WOMEN LYNCHED


REMEMBERING OUR SISTERS: BLACK WOMEN LYNCHED

Second Annual Sacred Libation Ceremony in Remembrance on March 29

By Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett

laura_nelson_high_res

Laura Nelson is the only one of the Black Women who were lynched in America of whom we have a known photograph.

Last year while reading articles on a Black news website, I noticed a link to an article about Black women who were lynched. Being a student of history, I followed the link which led to another Black website and read the story which detailed the history of 150 documented cases of Black women in the U.S. who had been lynched between 1870 and 1957. These “women,” many of whom were mere girls were not just lynched — they were raped and tortured before being hung, shot or burned by mobs of white men. The first three women on the list – Mrs. John Simes lynched in 1870 in Henry County, Kentucky and Mrs. Hawkins and her daughter, lynched in 1872 in Fayette County, Kentucky, were all murdered for being republicans!

I have been a student of history (American, Black/African and ancient history) since I was a child. I knew that thousands of African people in America have been lynched. I read “The Lynching Calendar” that lists 2,400 of the 5,000 documented lynchings of African people in the U.S., but I didn’t realize there were this many women lynched! The website with The Lynching Calendar” has since mysteriously disappeared.

A post on another Black website provided documented information on these women – their names, the dates, places, the reason they were lynched and with whom they were lynched. Reading this made me angry and brought tears to my eyes. I sent it to my email list and told the brothers and sisters to send it to every person of African descent they know. This is part of our history — Amerikkkan history that we must pass to our children and grandchildren. They will not learn this in school. It’s up to us to teach them.

After reading the accounts of the lynchings, the Egun (ancestors) spoke to me and directed me to do something so they will be remembered. I broke down and cried like a baby because I could feel the horror and pain that these women endured. Olódùmarè help me! Egun directed me to conduct a sacred libation ceremony to remember them and bring some peace to their souls. They also directed me to do this annually on the designated day. I will conduct this annual ritual as long as I have breath in my body.

I’m sure most people don’t know about these women, but we must never forget women like pregnant Mary Turner who was lynched May 17, 1918 in Brooks County, Georgia to teach her a lesson. After her husband was lynched, Mary threatened to have those who lynched her husband arrested. She fled, but the mob pursued her and found her the next morning. She was eight months pregnant when the mob of several hundred took her to a stream, tied her ankles together and hung her from a tree with her head down. She was doused with gasoline and set on fire. One of the mob took a knife and split her stomach open so that her unborn baby fell to the ground. The baby’s head was crushed under the heels of the mob. But, that wasn’t enough for the demonic mob. They finished Mary off by riddling her body with bullets.

Sisters Alma (16) and Maggie Howze (20) were both pregnant by Dr. E. L. Johnston, a dentist who used them both as his sex slaves, when lynched in 1918 in Mississippi for allegedly killing him. Eyewitnesses at Alma’s burial said that that the movements of her unborn baby could be detected.

Laura Nelson was accused of murdering a sheriff who had discovered stolen goods in her house. She was lynched together with her son (15), in 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma. Laura and her son were taken from jail, dragged six miles to the Canadian River, where she was raped by the mob before she and her son were hung from a bridge.

2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER

2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony Flyer

These lynchings are a part of the “African Holocaust – the Maafa” that some folks, including some Negroes, want us to forget. The Maafa included the Middle Passage, 300+ years of chattel slavery, Reconstruction, Jim Crow segregation and continues to this day. For more information on these lynchings, go to https://henriettavintondavis.wordpress.com/2009/07/22/recorded/.

Last year 25-30 of you came in the pouring rain to witness this important ritual. Thank you for standing up for our sisters! Once again, I am asking all spiritually-conscious women and men of African descent to join me 3:00PM, Sunday, March 29 at Congo (Washington) Square, 7th & Walnut Streets for the second annual sacred libation ceremony in remembrance of our sisters. Please wear white – no black or dark colors. Bring your children because they must know and learn about this forgotten history so it will never be repeated. We must never forget these women – our sisters — who were brutally tortured and lynched.

REMEMBER THE MAAFA! NEVER AGAIN!

Recorded Cases of Black Female Lynching Victims 1886-1957: More on Black Women Who Were Lynched


Click here for the Second Annual Sacred Libation Ceremony In Remembrance of Our Sisters

The lynching of Laura Nelson

After seeing the connection between Henrietta Vinton Davis and Black Women who were lynched (they all had no markers on their graves) we posted Dr. Daniel Meaders’ pamphlet on Black Women Who Were Lynched in America.  Reading that aroused wonder.   Were more women lynched than Dr. Meaders found? Further inquiry led us to the revelation of  “STRANGER FRUIT”: THE LYNCHING OF BLACK WOMEN THE CASES OF ROSA RICHARDSON AND MARIE SCOTT” by MARIA DELONGORIA. The information below is extracted from Appendix A: Recorded Cases of Black Female Lynching Victims 1886-1957. This list indicates approximately one hundred and fifty women who were lynched.  Four of them were known to have been pregnant at the time. m= mother d=daughter s=son f=father c=cousin w=wife h=husband #=age of victim b=brother s1=sister * some sexually related aspect (evidence of rape, sexual assault and/or ‘relationship’) ** approximate date

Number

Date

Name

Lynched with

County/City State

Allegation

1870

1

Sept Mrs. John Simes Henry Co KY Republican
1872

2

Nov Mrs. Hawkins (m) Fayette Co KY Republican

3

—– Hawkins (d) Fayette Co KY Republican
1876

4

May Mrs. Ben French Warsaw KY murder
1878

5

4 Nov Maria Smith Hernando MS murder
1880

6

29 July Milly Thompson Clayton GA

7

6 Dec Julia Brandt (15) Joe Barnes, Vance Brandt Charleston SC theft/murder
1881

8

*4 Sept Ann (Eliza) Cowan (35) Newberry SC arson
1885

9

29 Sept Harriet Finch Jerry Finch, John Pattishal, Lee Tyson Chatham Co NC murder
1886

10

25 July Mary Hollenbeck Tattnall GA murder

11

18 Aug Eliza Wood Madison TN murder

12

Sept Cummins (d) Stephen Cummins (f) Pulaski KY
1887

13

28 April Gracy Blanton W. Carroll LA theft
1891

14

15 April Roxie Elliott Centerville AL

15

9 May Mrs. Lee Lowndes MS son accused of murder

16

1 Aug Eliza Lowe Henry AL arson

17

Ella Williams Henry AL arson

18

28 Sept Louise Stevenson Grant White Hollandale MS murder
1892

19

3 Feb Mrs. Martin Sumner Co TN son accused of arson

20

10 Feb Mrs. Brisco(w) AR race prejudice

21

10 Feb Jessie Dillingham Smokeyville TX train wrecking

22

11 March Ella (15) Rayville LA attempted murder/poisoning

23

2 Nov Mrs. Hastings(m) son (16) Jonesville LA husband accused

24

Hastings(d,14) Jonesville LA father accused of murder

25

21 Dec Cora Guthrie,Indian Territory
1893

26

19 March Jessie Jones Jellico TN murder

27

18 July Meredith Lewis Roseland LA murder

28

15 Sept Emma Fair Paul Hill, Paul Archer, William Archer Carrolton AL arson

29

16 Sept Louisa Carter (Lou)(m) Jackson MS poisoning a well

30

Mahala Jackson (d) Jackson MS poisoning a well
1893

31

Nov Mrs. Phil Evens (m) Bardstown KY

32

Evans (d) Bardstown KY

33

Evans (d) Bardstown KY

34

4 Nov Mary (Eliza) Motlow Lynchburg VA arson

35

9 Nov Rilla Weaver Clarendon AR
1894

36

6 March unknown Negro woman Pulaski AR

37

16 July Marion Howard Scottsville KY

38

24 July Negro woman Simpson Co MS race prejudice
1895

39

20 March Harriet Tally Petersburg TN arson

40

21 April Mary Deane Greenville AL murder

41

Alice Green Greenville AL murder

42

Martha Green Greenville AL murder

43

1 July Mollie Smith Trigg County KY

44

20 July Mrs. Abe Phillips (m) unnamed child (1)Hannah Phillips (d) Mant TX

45

23 July Negro woman Brenham TX

46

2 Aug Mrs. James Mason (w) James Mason (h) Dangerfield TX

47

*28 Aug Negro woman Simpson MS miscegenation

48

26 Sept Felicia Francis New Orleans LA

49

11 Oct Catherine Matthews Baton Rouge LA poisoning

50

2 Dec Hannah Kearse (Walker,m),Isom K. (s) Colleton SC stealing a bible
1896

51

*12 Jan Charlotte Morris Jefferson LA miscegenation/living with white “husband”

52

1 Aug Isadora Morely Selma AL murder

53

18 Nov Mimm Collier Steenston MS
1897

54

9 Feb Negro woman Carrolton MS theft/arson

55

5 March Otea Smith Julietta FL murder

56

12 May Amanda Franks Jefferson AL murder

57

Molly White Jefferson AL murder
1898

58

22 Feb Dora Baker (d,2)Frazier Baker(f) Williamsburg SC race prejudice

59

9 Nov Rose Etheridge Phoenix SC murder

60

13 Nov Eliza Goode Greenwood SC murder
1899

61

23 March Willia Boyd Silver City MS
1900

62

2 March Mrs. Jim Cross (m) Lowndes AL

63

Cross (d) Lowndes AL

64

7 July Lizzie Pool Hickory Plains AR race prejudice

65

25 July Anna Mabry New Orleans LA race prejudice

66

28 Aug Negro woman Negro man Forrest City NC theft of peaches
1901

67

5 March Ballie Crutchfield Rome TN theft

68

20 March Terry Bell Terry MS

69

1 Aug Betsey McCray (m) Belfiield (s) Carrolton MS knowledge of murder

70

Ida McCray (d) Carrolton MS knowledge of murder

71

4 Oct Negro woman Marshall TX assault
1902

72

15 Feb Bell Duly Fulton KY

73

27 Dec Mrs.Emma Wideman Oliver Wideman Troy SC murder
1903

74

Negro woman murder of Mrs. Frank Matthews

75

8 June Negro woman Negro men (4) Smith County MS murder

76

24 June Lamb Whittle Concordia LA

77

*25 July Jennie Steers Beard Plantation, Shreveport LA murder by poison

78

28 Oct Jennie McCall Hamilton FL by mistake
1904

79

7 Feb Holbert (w) Luther Holbert Doddsville MS burning barn

80

*14 June Marie Thompson Lebanon Junction KY murder

81

30 August unknown Bates Union AR
1906

82

7 Nov Meta Hicks Mitchell GA husband accused of murder
1907

83

20 March Negro woman Stamps AR

84

Negro woman Stamps AR

85

21 May Mrs. Padgett (m) Son Tattnall GA son accused of rape

86

Padgett (d) Tattnall GA brother accused of rape
1908

87

3 Oct Mrs. D. Walker (m) Fulton KY race hatred

88

Walker (d) Fulton KY race hatred
1909

89

9 Feb Robby Baskin Houston MS murder

90

30 July Emile Antione Grand Prairie LA assault
1910

91

April 5 Laura Mitchell Lonoke AR murder

92

*25 Aug Laura Porter Monroe LA disreputable house
1911

93

*25 May Laura Nelson L.D. (14)(s) Okemah OK murder

94

2 Sept Hattie Bowman Ed Christian Greenville FL theft
1912

95

** Pettigrew (d) Ben Pettigrew (f) Savannah TN

96

** Pettigrew (d) Savannah TN

97

Negro woman Codele GA

98

*23 Jan Belle Hathaway John Moore,Eugene Hamming,Dusty Cruthfield or Crutchfield Hamilton GA tenants of murdered man

99

11 Feb Negro woman Negro children (3) Beaumont TX

100

13 Feb Mary Jackson George Saunders Marshall TX

101

25 June Ann Boston Pinehurst GA murder
1914

102

13 Mar** Mrs. Joe Perry (m,w) Joe Perry (h)SonChild Henderson NC

103

*31 Mar Marie Scott (17) Muskogee OK murder

104

28 May/June** Jennie Collins Shaw MS aiding in escape

105

17 June Paralee Collins (m) Issac (s) West Plains MO

106

*12 July Rosa Richardson (27-35) Providence/Santee SC murder

107

25 Nov Jane Sullivan (w) Fred Sullivan (h) Byhalia MS burning a barn
1915

108

15 Jan Eula Charles (Barber,d)Dan Barber (f) Jasper County GA parents accused of bootlegging

109

Ella Charles (Barber,d)Jesse Barber(b) Jasper County GA parents accused of bootlegging

110

May Briley Pescott AR

111

17 Aug Hope Hull AL

112

*8 Dec Cordella Stevenson Columbus MS
1916

113

19 Aug Mary Dennis Newberry FL aiding in escape

114

Stella Long Newberry FL aiding in escape

115

4 Oct** Mary Conley Arlington GA complicity in murder
1917

116

1 March Emma Hooper Hammond LA murder
1918

117

17 May Mary Turner (pregnant) Brooks Co GA taught a lesson

118

4 June Sarah Cabiness unnamed children(2)Bessie Cabiness(d)Pete (s)Tenola Cabiness(d)Cute Cabiness (d) Huntsville TX threatening white man

119

4 Sept Mrs. James Eyer Marion GA

120

*21 Dec Alma House (pregnant) Andrew Clark Shubuta MS murder
1919

121

5 May unknown Negro woman Holmes MS race prejudice
1920

122

2 Nov unknown Negro woman Ocoee FL race prejudice

123

18 Nov Minnie Ivory Willie IvoryWill Perry Douglass GA murder
1921

124

9 April Rachel Moore Rankin MS race prejudice
1922

125

25 June Mercy Hall Oklahoma City OK strike activity
1923

126

5 Jan Sarah Carrier Rosewood FL race prejudice

127

Lesty Gordon Rosewood FL race prejudice

128

29 Sept Negro woman Pickens MS

129

31 Sept Negro woman Holmes MS race prejudice
1924

130

23 June Penny Westmoreland Marcus Westmoreland Spalding GA

131

19 July —– Sheldon Meridian MS

132

11 Sept Sarah Williams Shreveport LA
1925

133

*25 April Annie Lowman (m) Aiken SC defending her daughter
1926

134

25 April Lily Cobb Birmingham AL

135

25 May Eliza Bryant Duplin NC success

136

8 Oct Bertha Lowman(d,s1) Demon (b) Aiken SC lynched after acquitted of murder

137

11 Nov Sally Brown Clarence (c) Houston TX
1928

138

25 Dec Negro woman (1) Eros LA dispute w/ whites

139

Negro woman (2) Eros LA dispute w/whites
1930

140

12 Feb Laura Wood Salisbury NC

141

5 July Viola Dial (pregnant) Narketta MS race prejudice

142

6 July Mrs. James Eyers (w) Markeeta MS race prejudice

143

10 Sept Holly White Pigg Lockett Scooba MS
1931

144

May Mrs. Wise Frankfort VA resisting Klan
1946

145

*25 July Dorothy Malcolm(w) (pregnant) Roger Malcolm (h) Monroe GA able to identify mob members

146

Mae Dorsey (w) George Dorsey (h) Monroe GA able to identify mob members
1956

147

*25 March Angenora Spencer Hyde NC miscegenation
1957

148

18 Nov Mrs. Frank Clay Henderson NC dispute

*Crystal Nicole Femister has a similar chart in the Appendix of her dissertation “Ladies and Lynching”: The Gendered Discourse of Mob Violence in the New South, 1880-1930. Having used overlapping sources accounts for similarities although there are differences in categories, variations of names, locations and some of the other content.

Black Women who were Lynched in America


Click here for full details on the 2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony In Remembrance of Our Sisters.

Order of Service for the Sacred Libation Ceremony.

Flyer for March 28, 2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony

Flyer for March 29, 2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony

(Note: this post is just a partial list of Black Women who were lynched in America.  More research has revealed there are 148 documented cases of African American women lynched in America.  Four of them were known to have been pregnant. Two of them had their unborn children forcibly removed from their womb. You can see the full list at the post Recorded Cases of Black Female Lynching Victims 1886-1957: More on Black Women Who Were Lynched.)

*** If you think what you are about to read is important, please leave us a comment below and share your thoughts. We want to know what led you to search for this information. It has been getting a lot of attention lately and we value your input.

Printed as a community service by Dr. Daniel Meaders, Professor of History at William Patterson University, and author of several books and articles, including Dead or Alive, Fugitive Slaves and White Indentured Servants Before 1800 (Garland Press, 1993)

The lynching of Laura Nelson

Jennie Steers On July 25, 1903 a mob lynched Jennie Steers on the Beard Plantation in Louisiana for supposedly giving a white teenager, 16 year-old Elizabeth Dolan, a glass of poisoned lemonade. Before they killed her, the mob tried to force her to confess but she refused and was hanged. (100 Years at Lynching. Ralph Ginzburg)

Laura Nelson Laura Nelson was lynched on May 23, 1911 In Okemah, Okluskee, Oklahoma. Her fifteen year old son was also lynched at the same time but I could not find a photo of her son. The photograph of Nelson was drawn from a postcard. Authorities accused her of killing a deputy sheriff who supposedly stumbled on some stolen goods in her house. Why they lynched her child is a mystery. The mob raped and dragged Nelson six miles to the Canadian River and hanged her from a bridge.(NAACP: One Hundred Years of Lynching in the US 1889-1918 )

P.rogram O.ur W.ill for E.ternal Revitalization.

We must P.rogram O.ur W.ill for E.ternal R.evitalization.

Ann Barksdale or Ann Bostwick The lynchers maintained that Ann Barksdale or Ann Bostwlck killed her female employer in Pinehurst, Georgia on June 24, 1912. Nobody knows if or why Barksdale or Bostick killed her employer because there was no trial and no one thought to take a statement from this Black woman who authorities claimed had ”violent fits of insanity” and should have been placed in a hospital. Nobody was arrested and the crowd was In a festive mood. Placed in a car with a rope around her neck, and the other end tied to a tree limb, the lynchers drove at high speed and she was strangled to death. For good measure the mob shot her eyes out and shot enough bullets Into her body that she was “cut in two.”

Marie Scott March 31, 1914, a white mob of at least a dozen males, yanked seventeen year-old Marie Scott from jail, threw a rope over her head as she screamed and hanged her from a telephone pole in Wagoner County, Oklahoma. What happened? Two drunken white men barged Into her house as she was dressing. They locked themselves in her room and criminally “assaulted” her. Her brother apparently heard her screams for help, kicked down the door, killed one assailant and fled. Some accounts state that the assailant was stabbed. Frustrated by their inability to lynch Marie Scott’s brother the mob lynched Marie Scott. (Crisis 1914 and 100 Years of Lynching)

Mary Turner 1918 Eight Months Pregnant Mobs lynched Mary Turner on May 17, 1918 in Lowndes County. Georgia because she vowed to have those responsible for killing her husband arrested. Her husband was arrested in connection with the shooting and killing Hampton Smith, a white farmer for whom the couple had worked, and wounding his wife. Sidney Johnson. a Black, apparently killed Smith because he was tired of the farmer’s abuse. Unable to find Johnson. the killers lynched eight other Blacks Including Hayes Turner and his wife Mary. The mob hanged Mary by her feet, poured gasoline and oil on her and set fire to her body. One white man sliced her open and Mrs. Turner’s baby tumbled to the ground with a “little cry” and the mob stomped the baby to death and sprayed bullets into Mary Turner. (NAACP: Thirty Years of Lynching in the U.S. 1889-1918  )

Keyamsha: the Shield of Righteous Power is Mightier than sin

Keyamsha: the Shield of Righteous Power is mightier than sin.

Maggie Howze and Alma Howze -Both Pregnant Accused of the murder of Dr. E.L. Johnston in December 1918. Whites lynched Andrew Clark, age 15, Major Clark, age 20, Maggie Howze, age 20, and Alma Howze, age 16 from a bridge near Shutaba, a town in Mississippi. The local press described Johnston as being a wealthy dentist, but he did not have an established business in the true sense of the word. He sought patients by riding his buggy throughout the community offering his services to the public at large in Alabama. Unable to make money “peddling” dentistry, the dentist returned to Mississippi to work on his father’s land near Shabuta. During his travels he had developed an intimate relationship with Maggie Howze. a Black woman who he had asked to move and lived with him. He also asked that she bring her sister Alma Howze along. While using the Black young women as sexual objects Johnson impregnated both of them though he was married and had a child. Three Black laborers worked on Johnston’s plantation, two of whom were brothers, Major and Andrew Clark. Major tried to court Maggie, but Johnson was violently opposed to her trying to create a world of her own that did not include him. To block a threat to his sexual fiefdom, Johnston threaten Clark’s life. Shortly after Johnston turned up dead and the finger was pointed at Major Clark and the Howze sisters. The whites picked up Major, his brother, Maggie and her sister and threw them in jail. To extract a confession from Major Clark, the authorities placed his testicles between the “jaws of a vise” and slowly closed it until Clark admitted that he killed Johnston. White community members took the four Blacks out of jail, placed them in an automobile, turned the head lights out and headed to the lynching site. Eighteen other cars, carrying members of the mob, followed close behind. Someone shut the power plant down and the town fell into darkness. Ropes were placed around the necks of the four Blacks and the other ends tied to the girder of the bridge. Maggie Howze cried, “I ain’t guilty of killing the doctor and you oughtn’t to kill me.” Someone took a monkey wrench and “struck her In the mouth with It, knocking her teeth out. She was also hit across the head with the same instrument, cutting a long gash In which the side of a person’s hand could be placed.” While the three other Blacks were killed instantly, Maggie Howze, four months pregnant, managed to grab the side of the bridge to break her fall. She did this twice before she died and the mob joked about how difficult it was to kill that “big Jersey woman.” No one stepped forward to claim the bodies. No one held funeral services for the victims. The Black community demanded that the whites cut them down and bury them because they ‘lynched them.” The whites placed them in unmarked graves. Alma Howze was on the verge of giving birth when the whites killed her. One witness claimed that at her “burial on the second day following, the movements of her unborn child could be detected.” Keep in mind, Johnston’s parents felt that the Blacks had nothing to do with their son’s death and that some irate white man killed him, knowing that the blame would fall on the Black’s shoulders. The indefatigable Walter White, NAACP secretary, visited the scene of the execution and crafted the report. He pressed Governor Bilbo of Mississippi to look into the lynching and Bilbo told the NAACP to go to hell. (NAACP: Thirty Years of Lynching in the U.S.. 1889-1918 ) (Papers of the NAACP)

Unidentified Man and two women lynched.

Unidentified Man and Two Women Lynched.

Holbert Burnt at the Stake Luther Holbert, a Black, supposedly killed James Eastland, a wealthy planter and John Carr, a negro, who lived near Doddsville Mississippi. After a hundred mile chase over four days, the mob of more than 1,000 persons caught Luther and his wife and tied them both to trees. They were forced to hold out their hands while one finger at a time was chopped off and their ears were cut off. Pieces of raw quivering flesh was pulled out of their arms, legs and body with a bore screw and kept for souvenirs. Holbert was beaten and his skull fractured. An eye was knocked out with a stick and hung from the socket. (100 Years of Lynching by Ralph Ginzburg)

WHO ARE OUR REAL HEROES? American mobs lynched some 5.000 Blacks since 1859, scores of whom were women, several of them pregnant. Rarely did the killers spend time in jail because the white mobs and the government officials who protected them believed justice meant (just us) white folks. Lynching denied Blacks the right to a trial or the right to due process. No need for a lawyer and a jury of your peers: the white community decided what happened and what ought to be done. After the whites accused Laura Nelson of killing a white deputy In Oklahoma, they raped this Black woman, tied her to a bridge trestle and for good measure, They lynched her son from a telephone pole. Had the white community reacted in horror after viewing the dangling corpses of Laura Nelson and her son? No, they came by the hundreds, making their way by cars, horse driven wagons, and by foot to view the lynching. Dressed in their Sunday best, holding their children’s hands and hugging their babies the white on-lookers looked forward to witnessing the spectacle of a modern day crucifixion. They snapped pictures of Laura Nelson, placed them on postcards and mailed them to their friends boasting about the execution. They chopped of f the fingers, sliced off the ears of Ms. Holbert, placed the parts In jars of alcohol and displayed them in their windows. White America today know little or nothing about lynching because it contradicts every value America purports to stand for. Blacks, too, know far too little about the lynchings because the subject is rarely taught in school. Had they known more about these lynchings, I am almost certain that Blacks would have taken anyone to task, including gangster rappers, for calling themselves niggers or calling Black women “hoes” and “bitches.” How could anybody in their right mind call these Black women who were sexually abused, mutilated, tortured and mocked the same degrading Please do not throw this away. Give it to a friend or a names that the psychopathic lynchers called them? relative. Peace. What Black woman in her right state of mind would snap her fingers or tap her feet toihe beat of a song that contained the same degrading remarks that the whites uttered when they raped and lynched them The lynchers and the thousands of gleeful spectators called these Black women niggers when they captured them, niggers when they placed the rope around their necks and niggers when their necks snapped. Whites viewed Black women as hated black things, for, how else can one explain the treatment of Mary Turner? The lynch mob ignored her cries for mercy, ripped off her clothes, tied her ankles together, turned her upside down, doused her naked body with gas and oil, set her naked body on fire, ripped her baby out of her, stomped the child to death and laughed about it. Blacks purchased Winchesters to protect themselves, staged demonstrations, created anti-lynching organizations, pushed for anti-lynching legislation and published articles and books attacking the extralegal violence. Many pocked up. left the community never to return again. Others went through bouts of sadness, despair, and grief. Some broke down, a few went insane. Others probably fell on their knees, put their hands together, closed their eyes and begged Jesus for help. Jesus help us. Do not forsake us. But Jesus. the same white man the lyncher’s ancestors taught us to love, never flew out of the bush in a flame of fire armed with frogs and files and locusts to save Mary Turner. No thunder, no rain, no hail and no fire blocked the lynchers from hanging Laura Nelson. He did not see the “affliction” of the Holberts; he did not hear the screams of Marie Scott or the cry of Jennifer Steers. So who are our real heroes?. Little Kim Is not a hero. Oprah is not a hero.. Whoople Goldberg is not a hero. Michael Jordan is not a hero. Dennis Rodman Is not a hero. They are entertainers, sport figures. creations of the media, media icons and they are about making huge sums of money and we wish these enterprising stars well. . Mary Turner, Laura Nelson, Marie Scott and Jennie Steers are your true historical heroes. Niggers they were not. Bitches they were not. Hoes they were not. They will not go down in history for plastering their bodies with tattoos, inventing exotic diets, endorsing Gator Ade, embracing studIo gangsterism, They were strong beautiful Black women who suffered excruciating pain, died horrible deaths. Their legacy of -strength lives on. These are my heroes. Make them yours as well.

Addendum=== Below are women who were lynched in addition to the initial findings of Dr. Daniel Meaders. They can be found in the pages of the book 100 Years of Lynching by Ralph Ginzburg.

Mae Murray Dorsey and Dorothy Malcolm On July 25, 1946, four young African Americans—George & Mae Murray Dorsey and Roger & Dorothy Malcom—were shot hundreds of times by 12 to 15 unmasked white men in broad daylight at the Moore’s Ford bridge spanning the Apalachee River, 60 miles east of Atlanta, Georgia. These killings, for which no one was ever prosecuted, enraged President Harry Truman and led to historic changes, but were quickly forgotten in Oconee and Walton Counties where they occurred. No one was ever brought to justice for the crime.

We are going to emancipate our selves from mental slavery.

We are going to emancipate ourselves from mental slavery.

Ballie Crutchfield Around midnight on March 15, 1901 Ballie Crutchfield was taken from her home in Rome to a bridge over Round Lick Creek by a mob. There her hands were tied behind her, and she was shot through the head and then thrown in the creek. Her body was recovered the next day and an inquest found that she met her death at the hands of persons unknown (euphemism for lynching). After Walter Sampson lost a pocketbook containing $120, it was found by a little boy. As he went to return it to its owner, William Crutchfield, Ballie’s brother, met the boy. Apparently, the boy gave him the pocketbook after being convinced it had no value. Sampson had Crutchfield arrested and taken to the house of one Squire Bains. A mob came to take Crutchfield for execution. On the way he broke lose and escaped in the dark. The mob was so blind with rage they lay blame on Ballie as a co-conspirator in her brother’s alleged crime and proceeded to enact upon their beliefs culminating in the aforementioned orgy of inhumanity.

Belle Hathaway At 9 o’clock the night of January 23, 1912 100 men congregated in front of the Hamilton, Georgia courthouse. They then broke into the Harris County Jail. After overpowering Jailor E.M. Robinson they took three men and a woman one mile from town. Belle Hathaway, John Moore, Eugene Hamming, and “Dusty” Cruthfield were in jail after being charged with the shooting death a farmer named Norman Hadley. Writhing bodies silhouetted against the sky as revolvers and rifles blazed forth a cacophony of 300 shots at the victims before the mob dispersed.

Sullivan Couple Hung as Deputy Sheriff and Posse Watch Fred Sullivan and his wife were hanged after being accused of burning a barn on a plantation near Byhalia, Mississippi November 25, 1914. The deputy sheriff and his posse were forced to watch the proceedings.

Cordella Stevenson Raped and Lynched Wednesday, December 8, 1915 Cordella Stevenson was hung from the limb of a tree without any clothing about fifty yards north of the Mobile and Ohio Railroad outside Columbus, Mississippi. The gruesomely horrific scene was witnessed by thousands and thousands of passengers who traveled in and out of the city the next morning. She was hung there by a bloodthirsty mob who had taken her from slumber, husband and home to the spot where she was raped and lynched. All this was done after she had been brought to the police station for questioning in connection with the arson of Gabe Frank’s barn. Her son had been suspected of the fire. The police released her after she convinced them her son had left home several months prior and she did not know his whereabouts. After going to bed early, a knock was heard at the door. Her husband, Arch Stevenson went to answer, but the door was broken down first and his wife was seized. He was threatened with rifle barrels to his head should he move. The body was left hanging until Friday morning. An inquest returned a verdict of “death at the hands of persons unknown.”

5 Hanged on One Oak Tree Three men and two women were taken from the jail in Newberry, Florida on August 19, 1916 and hanged by a mob. Another man was shot by deputy sheriffs near Jonesville, Florida. All this was the result of the killing the day prior of Constable S.G. Wynne and the shooting of Dr. L.G. Harris by Boisey Long. Those who were lynched had been accused of aiding Long in his escape.

Mary Conley After Sam Conley had been reprimanded by E.M. Melvin near Arlington, Georgia, his mother Mary intervened to express her resentment. After Melvin slapped and grappled with her, Sam Conley struck Melvin on the head with an iron scale weight, resulting in his death shortly afterward. Although Sam escaped, his mother was captured and jailed. She was taken from the jail at Leary and her body was riddled with bullets. Her remains were found along the roadside by parties entering into Arlington the next morning.

Bertha Lowman Demon Lowman, Bertha Lowman, and their cousin Clarence Lowman were in the Aiken, South Carolina jail when it was raided by a mob early on October 8, 1926. The three had been in jail for a year and a half while they were tried for the murder of Sheriff and Klansman Henry H.H. Howard. Howard was shot in the back while raiding the house of Sam Lowman, father to Bertha and Demon. Klansmen filed by Howard’s body two-by-two when it laid in state. A year after his funeral a cross was burned in the cemetery at his grave. Although the Lowman’s were tried and sentenced to death, a State Supreme Court reversed the findings and ordered a new trial. Demon had just been found not guilty when the raid on the jail occurred. Taken to a pine thicket just beyond the city limits their bodies were riddled with bullets. The events which resulted in this lynching are surreal to say the least. Samuel Lowman was away from home at a mill having meal ground on April 25, 1925. Sheriff Howard and three deputies appeared at the Lowman Cabin three miles from Aiken. Annie Lowman, Samuel’s wife and their daughter Bertha were out back of the house working. Their family had never been in any kind of trouble. They did not know the sheriff and he did not know them. Furthermore, they were not wearing any uniform or regalia depicting them as law enforcers. Hence the alarming state of mind they had when four white men entered their yard unannounced, even if it was on a routine whiskey check. It was even more distressing because a group of white men had come to the house a few weeks earlier and whipped Demon for no reason at all. After speaking softly to each other the women decided to go in the house. When the men saw the women move towards the house they drew their revolvers and rushed forward. Sheriff Howard reached the back step at the same time as Bertha. He struck her in the mouth with his pistol butt. Mrs. Lowman picked up an axe and rushed to her daughter’s aid. A deputy emptied his revolver into the old woman killing her. Demon and Clarence were working in a nearby field when they heard Bertha’s scream. Demon retrieved a pistol from a shed while Clarence armed himself with a shotgun. The deputies shot at Demon, who returned fire. Clarence’s actions are not clear. When it was all over a few seconds later the Sheriff was dead. Bertha had received two gunshots to the chest just above her heart. Clarence and Demon were wounded also. In total five members of the Lowman family were in put jail. Samuel Lowman returned to find in his absence he had become a widower with four of his children in jail along with his nephew. In three days he would be charged with harboring illegal liquor when a quarter of a bottle of the substance is found in his backyard. For that the elderly farmer was sentenced to two years on the chain gang. 18 year old Bertha, 22 year old Demon and 15 year old Clarence were tried for the Sheriff’s murder and swiftly found guilty. The men were sentenced to death with Bertha given a life sentence. Demon’s acquittal made it appear that Clarence and Bertha would been freed as well. The day they were murdered they were taken from the jail, driven to a tourist a few miles from town and set loose. As they ran they were shot down. Mr. Lowman contended one of the deputies who coveted the Sheriff’s job was his real killer. The same man later led the mob which slew Lowman’s children and nephew. Apparently, he knew they could identify him as the culprit. More on documented cases of Black Women who were Lynched in America.