Lynching of Women in United States Blog Series Part 1: The Lynching of Sisters Eula and Ella Charles


They state:

“Between 1837 and 1946, 173 women were victims of white mob violence in the United States. Of the 173 women lynched: 144 were African American…” What are their sources?

Rediscovering Black History

This blog was written by Dr. Trichita M. Chestnut, Management and Program Analyst in the Office of the Chief Operating Officer at the National Archives at College Park, Maryland

This will be the first blog post on a series of blogs on the lynching of women in the United States.

Lynching remains one of the most disturbing and least understood atrocities in American history.  During the Postbellum and Reconstruction periods, mob violence in the South became a tool for maintaining the racial order. African-American men, women, and children now comprised the majority of victims of lynch mobs and lynchings assumed an increasingly sadistic nature.

Between 1837 and 1946, 173 women were victims of white mob violence in the United States. Of the 173 women lynched: 144 were African American, 25 were white, 3 were Mexican, and 1 was Native American. 164 of these women met their deaths at the hands…

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2017 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY


2017 sacred libation flyer

Flyer for 2017 Sacred Libation Ceremony March 26, 2017 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Sacred libation ceremony for our lynched sisters: Calling all spiritual warriors to do the work!

By Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett, Oni Sango

Calling all spiritual warriors of African descent to gather 3:00PM sharp, Sunday, March 26, rain or shine, at Congo (Washington) Square, 7th & Walnut Streets in Philadelphia for the Fourth Sacred Libation Ceremony in remembrance of the 150 documented Black women who were lynched between 1870 and 1957.

In March 2014, I and a small group of priests of Philadelphia’s African American Yoruba/Orisha community conducted the first Sacred Libation Ceremony for the martyred ancestors. The ceremony has now been instituted as an annual ritual in March as part of Women’s History Month in memory of our ancestors.

Libation is poured and prayers are offered by female clergy in the Yoruba, the Akan, the Buddhist and the Christian traditions as prescribed by the Egun (ancestors). If weather permits a drumming is included.

How did this all come about? In 2014, while perusing stories on a Black news website, I came across a story entitled, “Black women were lynched too!” written by blogger Yolanda Spivey. The story included a link to a website (https://henriettavintondavis.wordpress.com/2009/07/22/recorded/) owned by Brother Nnamdi Azikiwe, that’s dedicated to Henrietta Vinton Davis, a prominent and fearless leader in Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) that included a listing of documented cases of 150 African American women who had been lynched between 1870 and 1957. It provides documented information on these women – their names, dates, places, the reason they were lynched and with whom they were lynched. Reading this made me angry and brought tears to my eyes. After reading details of the lynchings, the Egun spoke to me and instructed me to do more than send an email informing people about the history.

They needed libation poured for them to uplift and bring light their souls. They wanted to be remembered and have their stories told. They wouldn’t let me rest. It was physically and spiritually painful. I kept asking them why me? They replied, “why not you?” They have been with me ever since.

I contacted Brother Nnamdi who said he had been trying to get Black women to pour libation for the lynched Egun for years but no-one wanted to do it. In the 1990s he received a pamphlet by Dr. Daniel Meaders entitled “Black Women Who Were Lynched in America” that gave him details of the lynchings and posted it to his website. These “women,” many of whom were children, were not just lynched — they were raped and tortured before being hung, shot or burned by mobs of white men. Now days, African Americans ostracize Black people who are Republican. However, the first three women on the list – Mrs. John Simes lynched in 1870 in Henry County, Kentucky and Mrs. Hawkins and her daughter, lynched in 1872 in Fayette County, Kentucky, were all murdered for being Republicans!

Many were lynched for standing up for themselves and their families. If their husband or son was accused of a crime and couldn’t be found, the females in the family were lynched. Entire families, including the children were lynched together. Some were lynched merely because they were Black. Others were lynched because they dared to have a dispute with a white person.

Hannah Kearse was lynched in 1895 in Colleton, South Carolina with her mother and son for supposedly stealing a bible. Jennie McCall was lynched in 1903 in Hamilton, Florida by mistake! Mercy Hall was lynched in 1922 in Oklahoma City for strike activity. Eliza Bryant was lynched May 25, 1926 in Duplin, North Carolina for having the nerve to be successful. The last sister on the list, Mrs. Frank Clay, was lynched November 18, 1957 in Henderson, North Carolina for having a dispute with a white person. I was 3 years-old in 1957.

Most people don’t know about women like pregnant Mary Turner who was lynched May 17, 1918 in Brooks County, Georgia to teach her a lesson. After her husband was lynched, Mary threatened to have those who lynched him arrested. She fled, but the mob pursued her and found her the next morning. She was eight months pregnant when the mob of several hundred took her to a stream, tied her ankles together and hung her from a tree upside down. She was doused with gasoline and set on fire. One of the mob took a knife and split open her womb so that her unborn baby fell to the ground. The baby’s head was then crushed under the heels of her murderers. But, that wasn’t enough for the demonic mob. They finished Mary off by riddling her body with bullets – to teach her a lesson.

Each year Nnamdi and I work together to carry-out the Egun’s instructions. The Egun plans every aspect of the ritual. The first year, neither Nnamdi nor I could sleep for weeks until it was done. We realized that we were chosen by the Egun to bring this to the people and that the Egun were speaking through us. They are channeling through us to do what needs to be done for them and our communities – healing. The Egun are not an abstract notion. They are just as alive as they were here in this realm we call Earth. Many of us can hear and communicate with them, but most people ignore them. However, they have determined that they are no longer going be ignored. The ancestors are commanding our attention. What was hidden is now being brought forth.

“The Egun/Ndiichie/ancestors are reaching out to us,” explained Azikiwe, a staunch Garveyite who lives in Washington, DC. “ They are calling us to use them in the struggle for the triumph of the righteous. The sacred libation ceremony opened me spiritually to view life from a whole new perspective. It is happening because we heeded the call of the ancestors to engage in a process to condition us spiritually for the work that needs being done.”

Let all those who have ears listen! The Egun wants people to innerstand that we are engaged in a spiritual war that is manifesting on Earth and that it’s time to put on our spiritual armor and use our spiritual weapons to defend and protect the children of the Diaspora. They are saying that we must be on one accord spiritually – “no more divisions among the children of Africa regarding religion or nationality/culture. Stop dividing and elevating yourselves above your brethren because of the way they worship the God. You are all God’s children and everyone in the family must work together.” Work is the operative word this year. Do what you have to do spiritually and do it NOW for the good of our people! They are commanding us to “do the work, do the work!”

Each January, Yoruba/Orisa priests around the world conduct divinations for the new year. The 2017 Reading of the Year for the U.S. conducted by the Philadelphia community of Orisa priests revealed that we must work together across the different traditions to do the important spiritual work that is needed this year. It also revealed that the feminine energy is very strong this year and must be recognized and respected. The feminine energy will be our saving grace. Victory over adversity will come through the Iyaami (E-ya-Mee) – the Mothers of the World. They are the powerful primordial mothers sent by Olódùmarè (Almighty Universal Creator) to rule the Earth. They oversee the control and balance of nature, hence “Mother Earth.” Everything comes to Earth through the Mothers. The Iyaami are coming to remove the obstacles and purge the malevolent energy. Accompanying them in the fight against the evil ones are the ruling Orisa (angelic forces) of the year – Sango, God’s avenging angel who is always victorious over his enemies, and Oshun, leader of the Iyaami. Oshun is Mother of Civilization and Culture — the Orisa of fresh waters which we need to live.

This year Sango, Oshun, the Iyaami and the Egun have prescribed an additional prayer ritual for the protection of the children of the Diaspora living in the U.S. and for the future of this nation. Olódùmarè’s angels are fighting on our behalf, but we must do our part. The most important component of this ritual is the feminine energy/female spiritual warriors. I am especially calling women of African descent from all spiritual traditions who are spiritual/prayer warriors to join us in this important ritual for the future of our nation and against the evil ones. There is nothing more formidable than a praying Black woman – a powerful force that raised nations! Our words have increased power this year, so we must be very careful what we speak. Keep your thoughts and words lofty.

We have to elevate ourselves to a higher spiritual vibratory level at this time in order to be in tune with the Universal Creative Force and its positive energy. It is imperative that we lift ourselves above the destructive energy that is being purged in order to survive. There is no need to react to the malevolent because they now have physical control. NO FEAR! Olódùmarè has spiritual control of the outcome – but we must do the work!

We must raise the vibration level of the Earth – the mother of us all. So, I’m calling on all of the clergy of our community – Babas, Iyas, Nanas, Mambos, Hougans, Tatas, Yayis, Imans, Rabbis and Reverends – to come together to pray for our Egun and the future of our people on Sunday, March 26. Those who are ready and willing to do the work step forward. This is not an event and is not for spectators. It is a serious ritual. Please wear white or light colors and bring your instruments.

Second Annual Sacred Libation Order of Service


2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER 3

2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony Flyer

SECOND ANNUAL SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY

IN REMEMBRANCE: 150 BLACK WOMEN LYNCHED IN THE U.S. 1870-1957

3:00PM, Sunday, March 29, 2015

Congo Square, Philadelphia, PA

ORDER OF SERVICE

Procession of Priests, Philadelphia Asante Nation Queen Mothers and other presenters

Egun Songs and Drums

Baba Joe Bryant, Baba Sekou Olayinka

Welcome

Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett, Oni Sango

The Women

Brother Nnamdi Azikiwe, owner of Henrietta Vinton Davis website

Lynching in Amerikkka

Iya Katrina Hazzard Donald, director of Rutgers/Camden Africana Program

Libation for the 150 Lynched Women Egun

Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett, Oni Sango

Nana Afua Afriyie Kyeiwaa, Philadelphiahemaa

Nana Akua Oforiwaa Amanfo, Philadelphia Asonahemaa

Song

Hush Somebody’s Calling My Name

Calling of the Names of the Lynched Egun

The Sisters

Prayer

Mama Gail Clouden

Sufi Healing Chant

Sister Sultana

Closing Song

Oh Freedom!

Drumming for the 150 Lynched Women Egun

Baba Joe Bryant & the community of drummers

ANNUAL SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FOR OUR SISTERS: The community remembers Black women lynched


ANNUAL SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FOR OUR SISTERS

The community remembers Black women lynched

Spiritually-conscious women and men of African descent will gather 3:00PM sharp, Sunday, March 29, rain or shine, at Congo (Washington) Square, 7th & Walnut Streets in Philadelphia for the Second Annual Sacred Libation Ceremony in remembrance of the 150 documented Black women who were lynched between 1870 and 1957.

2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER 3

Flyer for the 2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony to be conducted at 7th & Walnut Streets in Congo (Washington) Square Philadelphia, Pa.

In March 2014, the first annual Sacred Libation Ceremony for the women was conducted by Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett and a group of priests of Philadelphia’s African American Yoruba/Orisha community. Although it rained that day, approximately 30 people came to witness the ritual – some from as far as New York and Washington DC. The ceremony has now been instituted as an annual ritual on the last Sunday in March as part of Women’s History Month.

In addition to libation being poured by Jewett in the Yoruba tradition, women from other traditions also will participate. The Queen Mothers of the Philadelphia Asante NationNana Afua Afriyie Kyeiwaa, Philadelphiahemaa and Nana Akua Oforiwaa Amanfo, Philadelphia Asonahemaa, will pour libation in the Akan tradition from Ghana. They will be accompanied by the women of the Philadelphia Asante Abusuafoo. Other holy women participating includes well-known healer/education activist Mama Gail Clouden and her godchildren.

How did this all come about? Last year, while perusing stories on Dr. Boyce Watkins’ “Your Black World” news website, Jewett came across a story entitled, “Black women were lynched too!” written by blogger Yolanda Spivey. Although she was a student of history and knew about the list of 5,000 documented lynchings of people of African descent in the U.S., Jewett wasn’t aware of the number of women who were included. Neither was Spivey.

I can’t begin to tell how shocked I was to learn the depths of what happened to lynched Black men and women in this country,” said Spivey.  “I wasn’t naïve about the lynchings, but I was definitely naïve to learn the circumstances surrounding their murders.  The Black women in some cases were pregnant — and that didn’t matter to the white people who murdered them.  They were, in all circumstances, murdered for the silliest infractions or implicated in crimes that they did not commit.” 

Spivey’s story (http://naturallymoi.com/2014/02/yolanda-spivey-lets-not-forget-that-black-women-were-lynched-too/) led Jewett to a website owned by Brother Nnamdi Azikiwe, that’s dedicated to Henrietta Vinton Davis, a prominent leader in Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). The website (https://henriettavintondavis.wordpress.com/2009/07/22/recorded/) provides documented information on these women – their names, dates, places, why and with whom they were lynched. After reading details of the lynchings, the Egun (ancestors) began speaking to Jewett and instructed her that she must do more than send an email informing people about the history.

Amy Jacques Garvey, Henrietta Vinton Davis and Marcus Garvey

Amy Jacques Garvey, Henrietta Vinton Davis and Marcus Garvey

They needed libation poured for them to uplift and bring light their souls,” Jewett explained. They wanted to be remembered and have their stories told. They wouldn’t let me rest. It was physically and spiritually painful. I couldn’t sleep for the two weeks leading up to the ritual. I kept asking them why me? They replied that it was part of my destiny and that I had to do it.”

Continue reading

WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH: THE LYNCHING OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN


WOMEN’S HISTORY MONTH: THE LYNCHING OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

By Marilyn Kai Jewett

Many of us who are students of history know about the thousands of Black men who were lynched in this nation. However, most don’t know about the many African American women who were also lynched. Last year, I came across a website dedicated to Henrietta Vinton Davis, a prominent and fearless leader in Marcus Garveys’ Universal

Laura Nelson is the only woman of whom a photograph is known to exist who was lynched in America.

Laura Nelson is the only woman of whom a photograph is known to exist who was lynched in America.

Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). The website included a listing of documented cases of African American women who had been lynched between 1870 and 1957. The website provides documented information on these women – their names, dates, places, the reason they were lynched and with whom they were lynched. Reading this made me angry and brought tears to my eyes. Reading the details of these lynchings is hard and painful, but necessary for those who want to know the truth. This is part of our history — Amerikkkan history – world history — that must be taught to our children and grandchildren. They will not learn this in school. It’s up to us to teach them the true history of the U.S. that proclaims that it’s “one nation under God, with liberty and justice for all.” Right.

These “women,” many of whom were children, were not just lynched — they were raped and tortured before being hung, shot or burned by mobs of white men. Now days, African Americans ostracize Black people who are Republican. However, the first three women on the list – Mrs. John Simes lynched in 1870 in Henry County, Kentucky and Mrs. Hawkins and her daughter, lynched in 1872 in Fayette County, Kentucky, were all murdered for being Republicans!

Many of these women were lynched for standing up for themselves and their families. If their husband or son was accused of a crime and couldn’t be found, the females in the family were lynched. Entire families, including the children were lynched together. Some were lynched merely because they were Black. Others were lynched because they dared to have a dispute with a white person.

Hannah Kearse was lynched in 1895 in Colleton, South Carolina with her mother and son for supposedly stealing a bible. Jennie McCall was lynched in 1903 in Hamilton, Florida by mistake! Mercy Hall was lynched in 1922 in Oklahoma City for strike activity. Eliza Bryant was lynched May 25, 1926 in Duplin, North Carolina for having the nerve to be successful. The last sister on the list, Mrs. Frank Clay, was lynched November 18, 1957 in Henderson, North Carolina for having a dispute with a white person. I was 3 years-old in 1957.

I’m sure most people don’t know about these women, but we must never forget women like pregnant Mary Turner who was lynched May 17, 1918 in Brooks County, Georgia to teach her a lesson. After her husband was lynched, Mary threatened to have those who lynched him arrested. She fled, but the mob pursued her and found her the next morning. She was eight months pregnant when the mob of several hundred took her to a stream, tied her ankles together and hung her from a tree upside down. She was doused with gasoline and set on fire. One of the mob took a knife and split open her womb so that her unborn baby fell to the ground. The baby’s head was then crushed under the heels of her murderers. But, that wasn’t enough for the demonic mob. They finished Mary off by riddling her body with bullets – to teach her a lesson.

2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER

Flyer for the 2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony

Seventeen year-old Marie Scott was lynched on March 31, 1914 in Wagoner County, Oklahoma by a white mob of at least a dozen males. Two drunken white men had broken into her house as she was dressing and raped her. Her brother heard her screams for help, kicked down the door, killed one assailant and fled. Unable to find her brother, the mob lynched Marie. After she was arrested, the mob took Marie from jail, threw a rope over her head as she screamed and hung her from a telephone pole.

Sisters Alma, 16 and Maggie Howze (House) 20, were both pregnant by Dr. E. L. Johnston, a married, white dentist who used them both as his sex slaves, when beaten and hung in 1918 from a bridge near Shutaba, Mississippi for allegedly killing him. Alma was close to giving birth when lynched. Eyewitnesses at her burial said that that the movements of her unborn baby could be detected.

Laura Nelson was accused of murdering a sheriff who had supposedly discovered stolen goods in her house. She was lynched with her 15 year-old son in 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma. Laura and her son were taken from jail, dragged six miles to the Canadian River, where she was raped by the mob before she and her son were hung from a bridge.

Ann Barksdale (Ann Bostwick) was lynched in Pinehurst, Georgia on June 24, 1912 for supposedly killing her white, female employer. There was no trial and no statement was taken from Ann who authorities claimed had mental issues and should have been placed in a hospital. The mob was in a festive mood when they placed her in a car with a rope around her neck and the other end tied to a tree limb. Her murderers drove at a high speed until she was strangled to death. To make sure she was dead, the mob shot her eyes out and riddled her body with so many bullets that she was “cut in two.”

These lynchings are a part of the “African Holocaust – the Maafa” that some folks, including some Negroes, want us to forget. The Maafa included the Middle Passage, 300+ years of chattel slavery, Reconstruction, Jim Crow/De Facto segregation and continues to this day. Some of those people – African American and white — who witnessed these lynchings as children are still around.

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them.

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them.  — Ida B. Wells

These African American women, men and children were lynched with the cooperation of local law enforcement – many of whom were leaders of the local Ku Klux Klan. However, there’s a different kind of lynch mob in 21st Century Amerikkka. People of African descent are still being lynched by those who uphold this tainted, blood-stained system – the police, the courts, politicians who make the laws and yes, the media. So when you speak of the modern day lynchings of Brandon Tate-Brown, Phil Africa, Michael Brown, Troy Davis, Trayvon Martin, Amadou Diallo, Sean Bell, Oscar Grant and the countless men of African descent whose lives were unlawfully taken by police and the judicial system, remember our sisters who were brutally lynched by the mob.

Much thanks and praises to the scholars who researched and uncovered this important history. Thanks and continued blessings also to Brother Nnamdi Azikiwe who posted the information on his website. For more information on these lynchings, go to https://henriettavintondavis.wordpress.com/2009/07/22/recorded/.

Once again, I am asking all spiritually-conscious women and men of African descent to join me 3:00PM, Sunday, March 29 at Congo (Washington) Square, 7th & Walnut Streets in Philadelphia for the Second Annual Sacred Libation Ceremony in remembrance of our departed sisters. Although we are doing this in Philly, the ancestors want to be remembered with sacred libation ceremonies throughout the nation. We must never forget these women – our sisters, our ancestors — who were brutally tortured and murdered. NEVER AGAIN!

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REMEMBERING OUR SISTERS: BLACK WOMEN LYNCHED


REMEMBERING OUR SISTERS: BLACK WOMEN LYNCHED

Second Annual Sacred Libation Ceremony in Remembrance on March 29

By Iya Marilyn Kai Jewett

laura_nelson_high_res

Laura Nelson is the only one of the Black Women who were lynched in America of whom we have a known photograph.

Last year while reading articles on a Black news website, I noticed a link to an article about Black women who were lynched. Being a student of history, I followed the link which led to another Black website and read the story which detailed the history of 150 documented cases of Black women in the U.S. who had been lynched between 1870 and 1957. These “women,” many of whom were mere girls were not just lynched — they were raped and tortured before being hung, shot or burned by mobs of white men. The first three women on the list – Mrs. John Simes lynched in 1870 in Henry County, Kentucky and Mrs. Hawkins and her daughter, lynched in 1872 in Fayette County, Kentucky, were all murdered for being republicans!

I have been a student of history (American, Black/African and ancient history) since I was a child. I knew that thousands of African people in America have been lynched. I read “The Lynching Calendar” that lists 2,400 of the 5,000 documented lynchings of African people in the U.S., but I didn’t realize there were this many women lynched! The website with The Lynching Calendar” has since mysteriously disappeared.

A post on another Black website provided documented information on these women – their names, the dates, places, the reason they were lynched and with whom they were lynched. Reading this made me angry and brought tears to my eyes. I sent it to my email list and told the brothers and sisters to send it to every person of African descent they know. This is part of our history — Amerikkkan history that we must pass to our children and grandchildren. They will not learn this in school. It’s up to us to teach them.

After reading the accounts of the lynchings, the Egun (ancestors) spoke to me and directed me to do something so they will be remembered. I broke down and cried like a baby because I could feel the horror and pain that these women endured. Olódùmarè help me! Egun directed me to conduct a sacred libation ceremony to remember them and bring some peace to their souls. They also directed me to do this annually on the designated day. I will conduct this annual ritual as long as I have breath in my body.

I’m sure most people don’t know about these women, but we must never forget women like pregnant Mary Turner who was lynched May 17, 1918 in Brooks County, Georgia to teach her a lesson. After her husband was lynched, Mary threatened to have those who lynched her husband arrested. She fled, but the mob pursued her and found her the next morning. She was eight months pregnant when the mob of several hundred took her to a stream, tied her ankles together and hung her from a tree with her head down. She was doused with gasoline and set on fire. One of the mob took a knife and split her stomach open so that her unborn baby fell to the ground. The baby’s head was crushed under the heels of the mob. But, that wasn’t enough for the demonic mob. They finished Mary off by riddling her body with bullets.

Sisters Alma (16) and Maggie Howze (20) were both pregnant by Dr. E. L. Johnston, a dentist who used them both as his sex slaves, when lynched in 1918 in Mississippi for allegedly killing him. Eyewitnesses at Alma’s burial said that that the movements of her unborn baby could be detected.

Laura Nelson was accused of murdering a sheriff who had discovered stolen goods in her house. She was lynched together with her son (15), in 1911 in Okemah, Oklahoma. Laura and her son were taken from jail, dragged six miles to the Canadian River, where she was raped by the mob before she and her son were hung from a bridge.

2015 SACRED LIBATION CEREMONY FLYER

2015 Sacred Libation Ceremony Flyer

These lynchings are a part of the “African Holocaust – the Maafa” that some folks, including some Negroes, want us to forget. The Maafa included the Middle Passage, 300+ years of chattel slavery, Reconstruction, Jim Crow segregation and continues to this day. For more information on these lynchings, go to https://henriettavintondavis.wordpress.com/2009/07/22/recorded/.

Last year 25-30 of you came in the pouring rain to witness this important ritual. Thank you for standing up for our sisters! Once again, I am asking all spiritually-conscious women and men of African descent to join me 3:00PM, Sunday, March 29 at Congo (Washington) Square, 7th & Walnut Streets for the second annual sacred libation ceremony in remembrance of our sisters. Please wear white – no black or dark colors. Bring your children because they must know and learn about this forgotten history so it will never be repeated. We must never forget these women – our sisters — who were brutally tortured and lynched.

REMEMBER THE MAAFA! NEVER AGAIN!

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them.


 

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them.

The way to right wrongs is to turn the light of truth on them. This is an advertisement taken from the Washington Bee newspaper dated Saturday October 22, 1892. It is an advertisement for Ida B. Wells’ lecture held at Metropolitan AME Church in Washington, D.C. Her subject that night was “Southern Mob Rule.” She was introduced by Timothy Thomas Fortune, editor of the New York Age and later an editor of the Negro World Newspaper. Presiding at the event was Mary Church Terrell.

Ida B. Wells gives us our marching orders. We know 148 women of African ancestry were lynched in the United States of America. We will right those wrongs by turning the light of truth on them.